The model for the characterisation of upstream supply chains for crude oil and natural gas is primarily based on data available from the Ecoinvent 3 Database. These data are periodically updated both with available primary data (e.g. annual reports and environmental reviews of gas and oil producers) and literature sources. Thus, the environmental impacts of oil and gas production in different regions of the world (e.g. Germany, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, North Africa, the Middle East, North America, Latin America) under the application of different technologies (e.g. on-shore, off-shore, fracking) may be analysed.
The modelling of oil and gas upstream supply chains includes production and transport with the option to consider infrastructural requirements depending on the specific question. Transport may be carried out via pipeline or tanker. The liquefaction of natural gas for transport purposes (LNG) may also be considered.