Do travelling with motorhomes and caravans have a smaller carbon footprint than other forms of travelling? The study compares the emissions from driving, vehicle and building manufacture, on-site mobility, accommodation and the preparation of meals.
Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fuelled vehicles through LCA
Road transport is an important contributor to several environmental issues, including air pollution and climate change. The EU has set challenging objectives for tackling these. To help support decision making on mitigating actions in the transport sector it is paramount to develop a better understanding of the environmental impacts of road vehicles over their entire lifecycle.
What could new sustainable ways of producing diesel and heavy fuel oil look like? What are the new raw materials? Pyromar is about producing “defossilised”, low-sulphur maritime bunker fuels from bio-based residues.
The hemicellulose fraction from side streams of the pulp and biofuel industry is the focus of the EU project. The aim is to purify and process them more efficiently and convert them into sugars that can be used as the basis for new biobased synthetic resins and thus replace fossil polymers.
The emission calculation models TREMOD and TREMOD-MM are the most important data sources for energy consumption and pollutant emissions of transport and mobile equipment and machinery in Ger-many. A comprehensively updated database is now available for the years 1960-2018 and for the trend scenario until 2050.
Evaluation of the funding of electric buses in public transport
Since March 2018, the BMU has been supporting transport companies in the purchase of e-buses in local public transport. An impact evaluation of the support programme is now being carried out as part of an accompanying study.
In Rwanda, the environmental problems of transport are to be counteracted by expanding electric mobility. A feasibility study has now been carried out as part of a project on “Sustainable Mobility and Rapid Transport” (SMART).
EnEff:Heat: ENA – Energy Planning to Enable Waste Heat Use in District Heating
In order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the heat supply of buildings, structural thermal insulation must be improved and renewable energies and waste heat must be developed. Heating network systems have an essential systemic function in this context, as they connect low GHG heat sources and heat consumers spatially.
Ecological footprint of food and dishes in Germany
How are the production, transport, packaging or preparation of food affecting the environment? The new ifeu study “Ecological footprint of food and dishes in Germany” provides not only CO2 footprints but also water, land use and phosphate footprints as well as the energy requirements of almost 200 food products.
Megacities – mega congestion. How can the growing population in Indonesia’s big cities remain mobile? What environmentally friendly alternatives to cars and mopeds are there? Experts from ifeu investigated in three cities how much greenhouse gas could be saved with the planned Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) systems.
Sugar is one of the most essential raw materials for industrial bioprocessing supply chains. The VAMOS project aims to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of producing sugar derived from household waste as a renewable resource and producing of high performance, bio-based materials and products.
Appliances and installations consume energy when they are used: in the household, in the boiler room, but also in industry and commerce. EU eco-design and energy efficiency labels are drivers for improving the energy efficiency of these appliances and systems. This research project supports the Federal Government in achieving demanding standards for new eco-design requirements and labelling and is also developing measures at national level to reduce the energy consumption of products.
Energy-efficient air conditioning and ventilation systems
How can the building stock be climate-neutral by 2050 at the latest? Air conditioning and ventilation systems, especially in non-residential buildings, consume considerable amounts of energy. They therefore have high energy-saving potential.
Based on the results of MoniRess (inventory, monitoring and analysis of the international developments in the policy area of conserving natural resources), in MoniRess II the monitoring system is further developed and the results of countries already observed are continuously updated. Several further countries were included in the observation.
DecarbFW – Decarbonisation of decentralised energy infrastructures
The decarbonisation of district heating is challenging from a technical, socio-economic and institutional point of view. We analyse the framework conditions in five case studies and show transformation paths towards a towards a 100 % greenhouse gas reduction.
Scientific support of the Climate Protection Unit at the Ministry of the Environment in Baden-Württemberg
Climate policy developments and decisions at federal level have a significant influence on the achievement of energy and climate policy goals in the individual countries. The project supports the Baden-Württemberg Ministry of the Environment in analysing the impact contributions and interactions of fed-eral and EU climate protection measures and develops a concept for their recording and presentation.
RMC (Raw Material Consumption) is a key indicator to measure progress with regard to resource efficien-cy. It includes domestic extraction and imports minus exports measured in raw material equivalents. In this project, Eurostat is assisted in calculating raw material equivalents of imports and exports based on the EU RME model.
The main objective of the Global-Bio-Pact project was the development and harmonisation of global sustainability certification schemes for biomass production, conversion systems and trade in order to avoid negative socio-economic impacts.
Concepts for Climate Protection (local and regional)
ifeu has developed climate concepts for cities and communities since the late 1980’s. The proposed recommendations are based on detailed analysis and scenarios which are developed through an interactive process with key local stakeholders.
In order to strengthen the ecological raw material policy, the method for the evaluation of environmental hazard potentials (ÖkoRess I) is to be applied systematically and on a pilot basis at 100 locations for the three important raw materials iron ore, copper ore and bauxite.
AIRE – Scenario-based analysis of infrastructure requirements in the context of energy system transformation and effects on infrastructure financing and planning
Compliance with climate protection targets requires a change in the energy supply of our society from the still dominant use of fossil fuels to a largely greenhouse gas-neutral system. In this context, infrastructure adaptation is also necessary, which goes hand in hand with regionally different expansion, conversion or deconstruction strategies.
Production of textiles from fresh fibres implies environmentally harmful exhaust air and waste water emissions in fibre production and textile finishing. At the same time, these processes consume enormous amounts of water, pesticides and fertilisers in cotton cultivation as well as fossil fuels in synthetic fibre production. One solution to avoid these negative environmental effects is to use recycled textile fibres.
The project investigates the extent to which environmental impacts from the use of abiotic raw materials can be linked to the concept of planetary boundaries, and whether target values for resource policy can be derived.
The project shows the benefits and trends of climate-friendly lifestyles. Households in North Rhine-Westphalia are supported and motivated to make a contribution to climate protection in the areas of nutrition, mobility behaviour and resource-saving consumption. The focus is on practical and easy-to-implement tips on how consumers can make their everyday lives more sustainable.
Further development of energy system transformation in the heating sector
Within a project for the implementation of the energy system transformation, ifeu carried out various analyses investigating the transformation of the heating market on behalf of the BMU and in cooperation with IZES and FÖS, focusing on a roadmap of policy instruments as well as various specific questions, such as the role of waste and district heat.
The consumption of plastic packaging for food, clothing and cosmetics has increased steadily over the last two decades. Consumers often do not even have the opportunity to buy products unpacked. The Innoredux research project aims to change this and show ways in which innovative business models in the retail sector can reduce plastic waste along the value chain.
This project in Tunisia supported the realisation of a national bottom-up-inventory of GHG emissions of the transport sector, followed by the elaboration of a sustainable transport strategy based on a bundle of measures discussed with local authorities and partners. ifeu analysed the GHG reduction potential and co-benefits of such a strategy and developed a monitoring approach to measure and verify mitigation effects. The MRV principles (Moni-toring, Reporting and Verification) as defined by the United Nation Climate Action sustained the entire project, which supports the development of a NUMP (National Urban Mobility Plan).
The Climate Neighbourhoods will take place for the second time on 22 and 23 May 2019 in the immediate vicinity of the International Conference on Climate Action ICCA2019 of the Federal Ministry for the Environment.
With the EWärmeG, the state of Baden-Württemberg passed the first state law of its kind in Germany in 2007. It came into force at the beginning of 2008 with the aim of increasing the share of renewable energies in the heat supply.
Assessment of the potential contribution of electricity-based synthetic fuels to archive the transport climate protection goals in Baden-Württemberg
This report examines what contribution electricity-based synthetic fuels could make to reducing transport’s greenhouse gas emissions in Baden-Württemberg. It discusses the necessary framework conditions and activities for the industrialisation and market ramp-up of this fuels until 2030.
To decarbonize the economy by 2050 synthetic energy carriers based on renewable sources are needed. The SYSEET project investigates the environmental impacts of providing these so-called power-to-X energy carriers. Life cycle assessments are used to determine the impact of the future production of hydrogen, synthetic methane and liquid hydrocarbons such as diesel, gasoline and methanol.
Long-term and climate protection scenarios for the transformation of the energy system in Germany
Commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi), the projects Long-term Scenarios and Strategies for the Expansion of Renewable Energy in Germany and Effects of Climate Protection Goals and Associated Measures on the Energy Sector and the Expansion of Renewable Energy provide a scientific analysis of the transformation process to an almost greenhouse gas-neutral energy system in Germany. The studies provide an important orientation in the discussion about the development of the energy transition.
The UNRAVEL project aims to develop advanced pre-treatment, separation and conversion technologies for complex lignocellulosic biomass. The technology relies on pre-extraction, fractionation using low-temperature acetone and subsequent downstream processing to isolate and convert the lignocellulosic constituents into high-value applications.
In terms of their climate impact, electric cars are frequently criticised. Different study re-sults make the discussion difficult for politicians and consumers. The project therefore systematically analyses the influencing factors and the potential for improvement in the carbon footprint of electric cars.
This project investigates the sustainability of the use of innovative online platforms which mediate the rental, sale, purchase or exchange of products and services between private individuals. Four platforms from the mobility, housing and clothing sectors provide practical insights which are supplemented by user surveys. Amongst other issues, the project focuses on user behavior, ecological effects, and the potential of peer-to-peer sharing.
eForFuel develops an industrial biotechnology solution that uses electricity and microorganisms to convert CO2 into synthetic hydrocarbon fuels, thus providing a sustainable replacement of fossil fuels.
The project analyses the volume of to-go cups for hot beverages in Germany, their waste management relevance and their impact on resources and the environment. The aim is to derive recommendations for action for the Federal Environment Agency, BMUB and the Conference of Environment Ministers.
The NanoTextSurf project focuses on manufacturing technologies of surfaces with nano-scaled materials. The goal is to upgrade and optimize existing pilot lines, and use them to demonstrate of novel nanotextured surfaces.
Masonry rubble for resource-conserving construction
To what extent is masonry rubble reclaimed from demolished buildings suitable for use in resource-conserving building construction? Can this material known as type 2 aggregate be processed to make R concrete with properties that are comparable to conventional concrete made with primary aggregates, and is this ecologically viable? The report for the German Federal Environmental Foundation answers these questions and many more.
R concrete – resource-conserving concrete – the next generation of material
The research project’s intended impulse towards resource conservation in construction can only be implemented in building practice in the long term if the production of resource-conserving R concrete proves ecologically beneficial from both the point of view of the concrete manufacturer and the construction waste recycler. It will also require the appropriate mineral construction waste to be available in sufficient quantities for the raw materials required for this purpose.
The “energy transition” is closely linked to a “raw materials transition” because electrical energy has previously been generated primarily from fossil resources involving the release of CO2. These raw materials simultaneously form the basis of chemical production. Using a single-stage electrochemical process to convert CO2 directly back into a raw material with high added value, or into an energy source material, is the exact opposite of the combustion and other usage processes (CO2→ CO + ½ O2). The objective of the research cluster is to evaluate the electrolysis of CO2 to CO as regards selectivity, energy efficiency, and achievable current densities in an industrial value chain.
The central aim of the transdisciplinary project is to develop strategies and tools for the sustainable development of rapidly growing metropolises in dry areas in Central Asia (Urumqi / NW China), in order to promote the quality of life in urban areas and to safeguard it in the long term.
Systemic thinking is required to develop a high-quality recycling system aimed at avoiding downcycling where possible through reductions in quality. The entire value chain must be taken into account, from waste or residue volumes through to the reuse of quality-certified secondary materials.
The overriding objective of this research project is to develop and substantiate an urban mining strategy by tapping into resource-saving potential in the production, use and dismantling of buildings, and the associated inflows, layers and outflows of materials in the construction sector. The aim is to develop and trial a method for documenting the materials used in individual buildings and across regions. The result is expected to take the form of a material passport concept for buildings and a materials inventory for housing estates.
District Heating (DH) networks are an important infrastructure element for a future heat supply and have a considerable potential despite the declining building heat demand. They offer the systemic advantage of a spatial and temporal balancing of heat sources and demand in a technically and economically optimized system. The future 4th generation is to take full advantage of the possibilities of heating.
The material flow, greenhouse gas and environmental balance for the year 2016 – the 2016 SKU balance sheet – provides an update of the impact of waste disposal in Berlin on the climate and the environment. A special topic included in this year’s balance sheet is the energy transition and its impact on the contribution that waste in Berlin makes to climate protection. The “Energy transition in Berlin” scenario examines the shifting boundary conditions due to the phase-out of fossil energy sources planned for 2030 and 2050.
Energy and Climate Protection Goals 2030 in Baden-Württemberg
The project investigates all greenhouse gas emitters and sinks in Baden-Württemberg: energy industry, industry, buildings, mobility, agriculture and forestry, landuse. A target scenario was calculated (-90% GHG by 2050), from which the necessary intermediate targets for 2030 for all sectors were derived.
The short study commissioned by the FNR entitled “Renewable fuel alternatives for mobile machinery” shows the emissions contribution from mobile machinery in Germany, and assesses several options for the use of renewable fuels.
Industrial Crops can provide valuable resources for high added value products and bioenergy. MAGIC aims to promote the sustainable development of resource-efficient and economically profitable industrial crops grown on marginal lands.
iBROAD intends to explore, design, develop and demonstrate the concept of individual building renovation roadmaps (iBROAD), as a tool outlining deep step-by-step renovation plans with customised recommendations for individual buildings (iBROAD-Plan), combined with a repository of building-related information (logbook, iBROAD- Log).
Information brochure on climate protection and energy efficiency
The brochure takes a clear and in-depth look at multiple aspects of energy efficiency as a key building block of climate protection, and also showcases some practical examples. It is designed as a reference work of technical contexts, background knowledge and current data, but will also provide impetus for independent ideas.
Energy efficiency and sustainable transport in Cyprus
The “energy efficiency and sustainable transport “ in Cyprus analyses the potential of using alternative fuels, e.g. biofuels, natural gas or electro-mobility, for the road and maritime sectors to increase the share of renewable energy sources and reduce transport GHG emissions by 2020 and up to 2050.
The aim of the project was to create Eco-profiles for HDPE and PP produced within countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), in analogy to the Eco-profiles published by PlasticsEurope relating to European plastics production.
Evaluation and perspectives of the market incentive scheme
The market incentive scheme has become established as a central funding tool for the area of the heat supply from renewable energy sources. ifeu has supported the programme since 2008, and is developing strategic perspectives for further development.
The LCA of Tetra Pak carton packages and alternative packagings on the Nordic market aims to provide an up-to date knowledge regarding the environmental performance of carton packages and alternative packages on the four Nordic markets.
Instrumentation options for energy consumption reduction through behavioural change
In climate protection scenarios, sufficiency measures and instruments are barely taken into account, despite the considerable energy saving potential of such measures. The aim of this project is therefore to investigate selected measures such as the reduction of living space per capita or the reduction of working time, their potential for reducing energy consumption, and policy instruments for their implementation and discuss these with stakeholders.
LebensRäume (Living Spaces) – Instruments for needs-based use of living space in municipalities
Due to an increase in living space per capita, living space is currently scarce in Germany, and not just in large cities. What options do municipalities have to support their residents in the search for adequate living space, and what are the co-benefits for climate protection? The aim of the LebensRäume (Living Spaces) project is to develop potential solutions to these questions and test these in conjunction with the district of Steinfurt.
The long-term climate protection targets of the EU require a transformation towards a sustainable and low-carbon economy. The present project examines further possibilities for the development of energy efficiency policies by means of good practise examples, exemplary country studies and will result in proposals concerning policy instruments at European level.
The four-year project aims at manufacturing intermediate products made from wood-like or stalk-like non-food biomass, e.g. from agricultural residues and perennial grasses, which are suitable for co-processing in conventional crude-oil-based refineries.
The value of energy efficiency in the building sector in times of sector coupling
How can the German climate protection targets in the building heating sector be achieved at the lowest cost to the economy, and taking into account the other sectors, and what is the cost reduction effect of energy efficiency? In other words, what additional costs are associated with low efficiency in the building sector?
RMC (Raw Material Consumption) is a key indicator to measure progress with regard to resource efficiency. It includes domestic extraction and imports minus exports measured in raw material equivalents. In this project, Eurostat is assisted in calculating raw material equivalents of imports and exports based on the EU RME model.
Evaluation of on-site energy consulting in North Rhine-Westphalia
ifeu and Kantar EMNID were commissioned to evaluate energy consulting in the ENeRWin project. The goal of the evaluation was to determine the effectiveness of the service “Energy consulting at your home”.
Germany, Europe’s leading export economy, is a key player in global raw material and commodity flows. The related impact on the environment outside of Germany has so far received little attention and has not yet been sufficiently quantified. Aim of the project is an in-depth analysis of the global environmental impact of Germany considering both consumption and production. The existing database is to be evaluated and expanded. The project also aims at further developing environmental economic reporting and at creating public awareness for global environmental impacts.
Demand for minerals and metals is growing. Global supply chains are becoming increasingly complex encompassing extraction, international trade, different processing steps, use in different products as well as reuse and recycling. The project MinFuture aims at identifying information gaps within global supply chains of minerals and metals and providing suggestions to fill those gaps.
Plug in PV – very small PV systems, suitable especially for tenants – is increasingly gaining in importance. ifeu analysed the economic and energetic benefits as well as the societal framework and the acceptance.
The coaching approach provides an easy introduction to municipal climate action measures for authorities with little prior experience. For this purpose, project Coaching II includes the development of materials and tools, as well as the training of coaches qualified to provide introductory consulting.
The promotion of resource efficiency at the country level is a rational in order to react to resource scarcities and to increase a country’s economic competitiveness. The project MoniRess collects and analyzes information on raw material use and resource efficiency policies in different countries and continuously monitors new developments in the area of resource policy.
Further development of the GBEP sustainability assessment
The Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) is a globally significant platform of around 50 states and 25 international organisations, which has developed a catalogue of 24 indicators for assessing the sustainability of national bioenergy policies. ifeu and the IINAS have represented Germany in this process from the outset, and implemented the indicators at national level. This project includes continued representation of Germany and continuation of the application of the sustainability indicators.
Would you like to see the CO2 footprint of your favourite recipe? Or calculate different scenarios for your milk products? To assist you, ifeu has developed a user-friendly food calculator which is based on a range of scientific analyses and can be applied to different issues.
Many citizens struggle to identify with the Federal Government goals for greenhouse gas reduction by 2050. They have difficulties to discern transparent courses of action for their everyday life choices. To raise awareness and understanding, KlimAktiv and ifeu have advanced the existing CO2 citizen tool and designed a citizen scenario calculator.
The research team on the “CORAL” project uses modern process engineering to extract carbon dioxide from the air and make it available as a raw material. This is a challenging project as the concentration of CO2 in the air just 0.04% – but it is a worthwhile source.
Climate mitigation potential of building equipment and HVACR in buildings
The project aims to quantify potentials for the reduction of system energy expenditure in the German building stock. The calculations are based on the quantification of individual potentials for advanced and renewable energy carriers. Potentials were inferred via calculation of the specific restrictions of the individual renewable energy sources and modelling of their key determinants
The project KliRess meets the challenge to depict interlinkages and feedbacks between climate and resource efficiency policy. With systemic modeling the complexity of feedbacks is systematically addressed, and currently known and unknown causal relations are made transparent.
The project WeWantMore aims to engage teenagers in youth-specific participation processes on climate action and mitigation of climate change. For this purpose, age-appropriate climate action projects are initiated. Thus, teenagers can actively participate in their implementation and take responsibility for climate change mitigation.
Strategic development of the national climate protection initiative II
The Federal Environment Ministry’s National Climate Protection Initiative (NKI) encompasses a wide range of funding and support schemes designed to promote climate protection amongst the target groups of municipalities, consumers, industry and education. The development team has drawn up various proposals on behalf of the BMU as to how the NKI can be developed in the short and medium term.
In support of adelphi, ifeu participates in the BMUB-funded project “Districts in charge”. District novel to climate change mitigation will be supported in the establishment of a structured climate action process. Moreover, consulting on the implementation of measures for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is available. For this purpose, ifeu develops information materials, and designs and organises round table debates, workshops and professional development for district authority staff.
Evaluation of the competitive tender „Stromeffizienzpotenziale nutzen (STEP up!)“
In 2016, the Federal Office for Economic Affairs announced a competitive funding model for the harnessing of electricity efficiency potentials (STEPup!). The Prognos AG and the ifeu are assessing, guiding and evaluating this novel funding scheme.
DeteRess tackles the specific knowledge gap about which saving potentials for raw materials can be reached exclusively through technical or structural measures and is supposed to shed light on the limits of resource efficiency solely based on technical and structural measures.
The project includes in-depth interviews of private households and businesses on services in the context of energy efficiency, both in the form of expert interviews following guidelines and standardised data collection.
A sustainable agriculture has to find ways to optimize nutrient efficiency as fundamental criteria of a bio-based economy. This project is motivated by the central hypothesis that novel plant cultivation strategies are the key to optimizing nutrient use efficiency of crop production.
The project KEEKS (Climate and Energy Efficient School Canteens) investigates the possibilities to design school canteens more climate and energy efficient. Main aspects include the selection of food, the technical devices installed in the kitchens as well as the processes that take place there. 24 schools in the area of Cologne take part in the project.
With the Climate Protection Planner, local authorities should, at low cost, using standard calculation methods, be able to make transferrable statements giving an assessment of the effects of local climate protection activities. In addition to standardised climate protection controls, the results can be used as the basis for developing a climate protection policy.
The study “Bio-Based plastics for foodstuff packaging”, commissioned by the Federal Ministry for Food and Agriculture and carried out by ifeu in collaboration with the Fraunhofer-Institut für Verfahrenstechnik und Verpackung (IVV) and narocon Innovation Consult, is part of the bioeconomy strategy of the German Federal Government, which seeks a gradual shift to a sustainable bio-based economy.
140 L of water for one cup of coffee – is that a problem? An answer on this question and many others on water as a scarce resource is provided by the travelling exhibition ‘Durstige Güter (Thirsty Goods)’.
How can the goal of a virtually climate-neutral building stock be realized by the year 2050? The “Building energy efficiency strategy (Energieeffizienzstrategie Gebäude, ESG)” adopted by the Federal Government on 18. November 2015 addresses this question. In collaboration with Prognos and the Institut für Wohnen und Umwelt (IWU), ifeu provided scientific support to the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy for the development of the ESG.
As part of the Climate Protection Dialogue project, ifeu designed and ran a training scheme for climate protection managers (Change Agent course). The main objective was to develop key qualifications for the implementation of climate protection concepts in municipalities in the long term.
Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) – Progress Report
The main objective of this research project is to create reliable scientific information as a high-quality basis for the EEG-progress report. Additionally, the annual monitoring report is being supported and accompanied.
Further development of the Climate Protection Plus funding programme
Climate Protection Plus is a funding programme from the state of Baden-Württemberg, which has been republished each year since 2002. In the context of the project, checks are made for the new funding period to see how the Climate Protection Plus programme can usefully support and underpin other funding programmes.
ENZO2 – a greenhouse gas calculation tool for the implementation of the German BioSt-NachV and BioKraft-NachV legislation
Within the framework of sustainability regulations (Biokraft-NachV, BioSt-NachV) must all market participants in biofuel production must prepare greenhouse gas calculations to demonstrate that they are achieving a savings target. ENZO2, an Excel-based calculation tool, was designed to make it easier for market participants to complete or evaluate this calculation. It is recognised by the German Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE) and is harmonised with the calculations at EU level.
The project RTD analyzes transformation pathways towards a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050 (95 % reduction compared to 1990) calculating different scenarios and resulting total emissions and raw material consumption until 2050 and in 2050.
Depending on the time at which they were filled, the domestic waste landfill sites used in Germany before 2005 are essentially a large reservoir of recyclable materials. The project showed that these sites represent a significant raw materials store, which makes landfill mining feasible under certain conditions. A guideline will be produced to facilitate an initial assessment of this option for different landfill sites.
The material flow, greenhouse gas and environmental balance (MGESKU) for the state of Berlin is used to optimise waste management, taking into account climate and environmental protection issues, and to initiate suitable measures to ensure the best possible use of waste as a resource. The 2014 MGE balance is the third balance of this kind.
The aim of ÖkoRessII is to enrich the debate ongoing in Germany, Europe and internationally on the subject of sustainable resource management by contributing scientific findings on relevant environmental impacts and socioeconomic contexts, and to formulate concrete policy options.
The website energytransition.de developed on behalf of Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung aims to explain what the German Energy Transition is, how it works, and what challenges lay ahead. It is intended to provide facts and explain the politics and policies to an international audience.
The guideline “Municipal heat transition” is addressed to anyone with an interest in tackling the heat transition in their town or municipality. It offers a compass for sound decision-making on the road to a climate-neutral heat supply.
EnEff: Wärme: NENIA – network-linked use of industrial waste heat
Waste heat utilisation is an important efficiency field. Our estimations to date assume up to 300 PJ of high-temperature waste heat (>140°C) and 160 PJ of lower temperature waste heat (60-140°C) from industrial processes, which could be used to provide heat for further buildings if fed into heating grids.
In collaboration with the German Energy Agency and the Passive House Institute, ifeu develops the renovation roadmap approach initially trialled in the state of Baden-Württemberg for implementation on the federal level.
To which amount can the energy consumption in the building sector be lowered? Which heat consumption would result if the whole German building stock would be refurbished to the best possible standard? Those were the questions at the beginning of the project by ifeu and Beuth Hochschule Berlin, which aimed to quantify existing potentials and to simulate a future development until 2050 in various scenarios.
Evaluation and monitoring of the funding scheme Energy Savings Meter
Energy savings meters are to take advantage of the trend towards digitalisation: final consumers can monitor their energy consumption with the help of digital measurement systems. Thus, savings potentials are revealed and consumers can be supported in saving energy. The project evaluates the funding initiative “Energy Savings Meter” pilot programme of the Federal Government and provides guidance throughout its implementation.
The rapid expansion of renewable energy in the electricity sector is based on a broad acceptance of renewable energy systems and has been driven for the most part by citizens’ initiatives in the form of working hours, expertise and capital. This study investigates the extent to which communal citizens’ initiatives and participation can also be activated to implement energy saving measures in buildings, public infrastructure and industry as a second mainstay of the energy transition.
The study reveals significant international potential for greenhouse gas reductions in the waste management sector. This applies to newly-industrialised countries and developing countries, but also includes several OECD and EU members. Additional incentives are needed to access these reduction potentials, thus supporting the relevant countries in the establishment of an integrated circular economy.
BioEm – Updating the emissions balance sheets for bio-energy
This project was commissioned by the Federal Environment Agency (FEA) to calculate emission factors for essential biomass usage pathways in Germany, whereby the GHG emission factors were supplemented by other key air pollutants (NOx, SO2 etc.) as well as the primary energy and land consumption. The data set complies with the methodology required by EU regulations, and is harmonised with the relevant background data.
COSMOS aims at reducing the dependence on imported coconut and palm kernel oils and fatty acids and on castor oil as sources for medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA, C10–C14) and medium-chain polymer building blocks by turning the currently underutilised domestic oil crops camelina and crambe into profitable, sustainable, multipurpose, non-transgenic European oil crops for the production of oleochemicals
Protein2Food is a new research project funded by the EU. The project’s aim is to develop innovative, cost-effective and resource-efficient, healthy plant proteins for human consumption in the form of new, attractive protein-rich food products and new recipes.
Scientific analysis of the development of energy consumption and measures to improve product-related energy efficiency
In light of the energy goals of the Federal Government, it is imperative to substantially decrease the energy consumption of products along with other measures. The current project offers technical support for the National Top Runner Initiative of the Federal Government, develops selected key topics at the national level and provides guidance for European developments on energy efficient products.
The BioGrace calculation tools were used to calculate GHG emissions from bio-energy sources, and are available to all market participants. The tools are harmonised within the framework of EU legislation. The EU Commission’s Decision 2013/256/EU recognises the BioGrace I tool as a system for demonstrating compliance with sustainability criteria as defined in the RED and FQD. ifeu GmbH owns the BioGrace I tool and is responsible for updating it.
In a joint effort with many stakeholders, the renovation roadmap Baden-Württemberg was developed as a simple but convincing product for building renovation. It was then introduced in combination with energy consulting software houses, tested in a pilot project and in three operator workshops, and finally integrated into instruments of state policy.
Based on 400 renovated ambitious efficiency houses from the DENA database, an analysis of architectural, supply technical, environmental, legal, economic, urban development and acceptance aspects of rehabilitation of buildings to high standards and high shares of RES heat is carried out and selected policy instruments are designed and developed.
Evaluation of the Swabian Alb Biosphere Reserve as an energy-efficiency region
In the context of the project “Swabian Alb Biosphere Reserve as an energy-efficiency region” carried out by BUND Baden-Württemberg State Association, the idea was to promote energy saving measures and energy efficiency locally in a targeted way. ifeu is supporting BUND by undertaking an evaluation alongside the project.
Including environmental matters in German language training is just as effective as the teaching of more established subjects in language classes. In this project funded by the German Climate Protection Initiative (NKI), teaching modules for integration courses are developed and tested in the classroom, including the analysis of the effects of environmental education efforts.
The education of ecopreneurs at Bulgarian universities supports sustainable business prac-tice and promotes environmental protection in Bulgaria. The ifeu assists in this process with skills exchange and knowledge transfer introducing best practice approaches applied in Germany.
Evaluation of on-site energy consultancy provided by the consumer advice centre for North Rhine-Westphalia (VZ NRW)
ifeu and TNS Emnid were jointly commissioned to evaluate the energy advisory service provided during the KEK project, which investigated specific issues relating to climate change and the energy transition. The primary aim of the evaluation was to calculate the effectiveness of the “Energieberatung bei Ihnen zu Hause” [Energy Advice in Your Home] scheme (EZH) and the consultancy service relating to damp.
Genuine participation must be practised, and it requires methods and examples. Both are facilitated by a suitcase of materials developed on the basis of a wide range of real-life examples. A print run of 1,000 copies of the suitcase was sent to schools, associations and initiatives which work with children and young people.
How can Germany implement Article 7 of the European Efficiency Directive, which covers energy efficiency obligation schemes? Agora Energiewende commissioned ifeu and energy consulting company LBD-Beratungsgesellschaft mbH to develop an implementation concept.
The aim of the project is to develop proposals and possibilities in which the energy system of the future can be sustainable at the local level. The energy efficiency and the exergetic optimization of the system are in the forefront alongside the CO2 neutrality of the system.
In the BMUB-funded research project “The 3E Multiple dwelling unit”, LichtBlick and the ifeu investigate business models for the electricity supply of electric vehicles with self-generated electricity from photovoltaic installations and cogeneration plants in single and multiple dwelling units.
The research project “The Value Chain from Microalgae to PUFA” (PUFAChain) aims at creating a profound scientific and technological basis for the industrial production of high-value products from microalgae.
The research project “The Micro-Algae Biorefinery (D-FACTORY)” aims at developing a concept for a microalgae biorefinery that is used for the sustainable production of Dunaliella algae and its products.
The present study is an extension of the Plan of measures for the implementation of an exemplary climate-friendly waste management in the Federal State of Berlin. The goals included the support of the Berlin Senate Department in the compilation of a material flow and greenhouse gas balance for 2012, and the extension to the environmental balance.
Evaluation of energy efficiency consulting for public utility companies
ifeu and TNS Emnid were jointly commissioned to evaluate the energy consulting provided by public utility companies. In light of the wide range of consulting services provided by public utility companies, the study focused on in-house consultancy for private households provided in the customer service centre or by telephone. The project examined consultancy services for building and apartment owners in relation to the issues of heat and photovoltaics, and on the subject of electricity savings.
The aim of ÖkoRess is to contribute to an increased consideration of environmental aspects regarding the supply of primary raw materials. The project is meant to support national, European and international policy on resource protection in their aim to configure extraction and use of raw materials more sustainable and to reduce the associated environmental impacts as far as possible.
EMIGMA – empowerment of migrants for climate protection
A wide-ranging research project investigated the attitude of migrants to climate protection and the quantification of their CO2 emissions for the first time. This showed that, although the migrants think in less climate-friendly terms than the German comparison group, they still emit less CO2 per year.
National implementation of EU Energy Efficiency Directive in Germany
The European Energy Efficiency Directive requires member states to ensure that energy companies implement energy efficiency measures, or take similar action. ifeu developed an implementation concept on behalf of Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND).
Environmental Innovation Policy – Greater ressource efficiency and climate protection through the sustainable material use of biomass
Bio-based products often have both environmental advantages and disadvantages, and as such show many similarities to the use of biomass for energy. This has been profoundly analysed by a study for the German Federal Environment Agency (UBA).
The purpose and goal of the present study was the analysis of the waste management situation in the Federal State of Berlin including waste material flows and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Based on these results, optimisation potentials were inferred and the potential impacts of reductions were modelled. Finally, an action plan for the implementation of a range of identified measures was proposed.
Assessments and guidelines for sustainable biofuels in developing countries
This project investigated the sustainability of liquid bio-energy sources in developing countries. The aim was to enable the Global Environment Facility (GEF) to identify priorities for future work, and to provide assistance for countries which are keen to get involved in this sector. One of the results of the study was an Excel-based calculation tool that can be used to calculate the greenhouse gas balances for biofuels in developing countries.
The “Model City of Mannheim” (MoMa) project was designed to trial an incentive-based cellular Smart Grid approach in private households. In three of the field tests conducted in Mannheim, overseen by ifeu, smart meters and automatic control units for the implementation of a price-based load management system were installed in several hundred households. In Dresden, a test was conducted to transfer the system from the power supply network to the district heating network.
The aim of the project was to help the move towards climate projection for local authorities that had little personnel and few financial resources, and to firmly and lastingly establish climate protection measures in local authority practice.
An interdisciplinary team of scientists has connected the individual strands of the energy transition to form a whole, creating interfaces and transitions in the form of a roadmap for the energy transition as a starting point for discussion.
The research work of the ifeu-Institute in Heidelberg, GEF Ingenieur AG, and the AGFW dealt with the question of how to increase the proportion of renewable energy sources in existing district heating systems. The report appeared in issue 24 of the AGFW’s Forschung und Entwicklung [Research and development] series.
This study investigated 63 technically and economically motivated insulation restrictions. A survey of energy consultants and other parties involved in the construction industry was conducted to determine the frequency of their occurrence in practice. A computer model was used to quantify their impact on heat consumption.
The ifeu investigates the environmental impacts of wood use, and cascading wood material use in particular, with an LCA approachin reference to respective equivalent products made from other materials and equivalent fossil energies. In addition to forest wood (stem wood, industrial wood, residual forest wood), wood from short-rotation coppice is included in the analysis.
Study of the environmental impacts of packagings made of biodegradable plastics
The 5th revision of the German Packaging Ordinance introduced special provisions for biodegradable plastic packagings, which are bound to expire on December 31, 2012. It is the intention of this research project to review the current regulation and to provide support to decision makers with respect to the future treatment of biodegradable packagings.
Evaluation of the “Mein Haus spart” [My House Saves] energy advisory scheme implemented by the consumer advice centre for North Rhine-Westphalia (Verbraucherzentrale NRW)
ifeu and TNS Emnid were jointly commissioned to evaluate the energy advisory service provided during the KEK project, which investigated specific issues relating to climate change and the energy transition. The primary aim of the evaluation was to calculate the effectiveness of the “Energieberatung bei Ihnen zu Hause” [Energy Advice in Your Home] scheme (EZH). Two other advisory schemes were also evaluated – “Feuchtediagnose” [Moisture Diagnosis] and “Solarstromcheck” [Solar Power Check].
The project analyses options to improve efficiency and climate protection in Germany in terms of the technical and economic potentials, the parties involved, the export prospects and political instruments.
Brochure „Renewable Energy – Innovations for a Sustainable Energy Future”
Since 2001, ifeu has been compiling and updating the brochure “Renewable Energy”. It provides a comprehensive overview of technologies, ecology and economy as well as systematic questions of the use of renewable energy.
The guide published in 1997 was thoroughly revised in terms of content and structure as a result of the brisk demand from municipalities throughout the Federal Republic of Germany. It thereby was supplemented by current priorities and fields of action and contains numerous current practical examples which are intended to motivate imitation or own activities in municipal climate protection.
The beginning of a climate protection partnership between cities in the USA and Germany as well as in Japan and Germany is at the forefront of a research and development project that ifeu is conducting together with the European Climate Alliance on behalf of the German Federal Environment Agency (Umweltbundesamt).
Climate protection contribution of waste management Germany+EU
This research project has used the methodology of eco-balancing to examine the efforts of the municipal waste management sector – including the use of waste wood – in Germany, the 27 Member States as well as in Turkey, Tunisia and Mexico.
Developing and emerging countries may improve their greenhouse gas (GHG) balance significantly by establishing sustainable solid waste management systems. The “Tool for Calculating GHG emissions in Solid Waste Man-agement (SWM-GHG Calculator)” is an Excel based tool to aid in understanding the effects of proper waste management on GHG emissions.
Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Inventories of Sweet Sorghum for first and second Generation Bioethanol
In light of increased discussions regarding the competition between bioenergy and food, Sweet Sorghum has emerged as a promising energy crop because it can be used for the production of food, biofuels and fertiliser. Against this background, ifeu has investigated the environmental impacts of several Sweet Sorghum production systems.
Bioenergy from Cereals and Sugar Beet: Energy and Greenhouse Gas Balances
IFEU was commissioned by the German Biofuel Association (LAB) to evaluate the life-cycle energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions of selected bioenergy paths from cereals and sugar beet including various combinations of biofuel and bioenergy production
Ecological assessment of novel logistics concepts for biofuels
Biogenic fuels are increasingly relevant in recent times. However, there are considerable potentials available for exploration in addition to the established biofuels derived from oil, sugar and starch crops, assuming that entire plants could be utilized for the production of synthetic biofuels.
Nigeria, the land of oil, gas and coal resources, is developing a Renewable Energy Master Plan (REMP). Renewable energy ought to help improve the rural population’s access to modern energy, reduce the unsustainable use of firewood, and cut greenhouse gas emissions.
The Peruvian electricity generation is characterized by a high proportion of hydroelectric power, but also by a growing contribution of gas-fired power plants. Increasing climate variability and melting glaciers have caused the generation of electricity from hydropower to become less reliable.
At present, BtL (Biomass-to-Liquid) fuels are the subject of various R&D projects on 2nd generation biofuels. However, the state of knowledge on the environmental impacts of BtL fuels is very limited. This gap has been filled by ifeu carrying out the first comprehensive study for the environmental assessment of BtL fuels.
Bioenergy chains from perennial crops in South Europe
The project was a feasibility study to evaluate an entire Southern European bioenergy chain, i.e. from biomass production to thermochemical conversion, under consideration of technological, financial/ economic and environmental aspects. The feedstocks in question were a number of perennial energy crops carefully selected to ensure, a year-round feedstock availability by successive harvesting.
Optimisation for the sustainable expansion of biogas production and use in Germany
Supported by measures like the Renewable Energies Act, the use of biogas has become increasingly relevant in recent years. However, despite the fact that both production and use of biogas are associated with many ecological and economic benefits, there may be cases of conflict with other sustainability goals, such as nature conservation.
Ecologically Optimized Extension of Renewable Energy Utilization in Germany
The objective of the research project is to develop a strategy for an ‘ecologically optimised’ expansion of renewable energies in Germany. Based on a detailed life cycle assessment, in a first step the environmental impacts of the relevant technologies (wind, hydro, photovoltaic, solarthermal, geothermal, biomass) are assessed, with a specific focus on nature conservation aspects.
In recent years the popularity of biodiesel (rapeseed oil methyl ester, RME) has increased dramatically in Germany. Starting with the overall comparison between RME and conventional diesel fuel, the investigation examined four key aspects.
Since the beginning of 2002 the Ludwigshafen Technical Works (TWL) has been improving energy efficiency at 34 schools in Ludwigshafen as part of a technical measures energy savings contract in the heating sector.
Ziel der Untersuchung ist ein ökologischer Vergleich für die beiden Bioenergieträger Rapsöl und RME. Dabei sollen unterschiedliche Verwendungen der anfallenden Nebenprodukte genauso berücksichtigt werden.
The goal of the project “KlimaNet” is to provide the necessary know-how for the launch and execution of climate protection and energy saving projects in schools. These projects help students, teachers and janitors achieve an energy savings of 5 % through the conscious use of electricity and heat.
The ifeu electricity grid model is a flexible tool to derive the environmental impacts connected to electricity generation in different countries and regions of the world. Included are extraction and transport of energy resources as well as fuel mixes, efficiencies and transfer losses among other parameters.
The oil and gas production model presents a powerful and versatile tool for the assessment of environmental impacts arising from oil and gas production including transport in different global regions and under application of different technologies.
Material and energy flows within a single refinery or an entire refinery region may be analysed with the complex and flexible ifeu refinery model. It may also be used for the characterisation of subsequent petrochemical processes.