Palm oil

© ifeu

Palm oil has been the subject of much criticism and debate for many years: firstly because tropical rainforests are being cleared for palm oil production, threatening biodiversity, and secondly because in many cases the inhabitants are being driven off their land. The situation has worsened since palm oil has been used not only for food but also for bioenergy production.

For more than 10 years we have been developing recommendations for a number of different actors on how palm oil can be produced more sustainably in the future – for the German government, the WWF, the European Commission, UNEP and the Malaysian Palm Oil Council, among others.



G. Reinhardt: Camelina und Crambe: Nachhaltige Alternativen für die Landwirtschaft? [Camelina and Crambe: Sustainable Alternatives for Agriculture?] Oral presentation, C.A.R.M.E.N.-Symposium 2019: Energie- und Ressourcenwende: Impulse aus dem ländlichen Raum [Energy and Resource Transition: Impulses from rural areas], Straubing, Germany, 1 – 2 July 2019

G. Reinhardt: How to improve the sustainability of palm oil by using wooden products such as furniture or plywood from oil palm trunks. In: Proceedings of the 1st World Conference on By-Products of Palm Trees and their application (ByPalma), Aswan, December 15-17, 2018, Egypt

G. Reinhardt: How to improve the sustainability of 1st and 2nd generation biofuels for transportation. Keynote talk. Proceedings of the 9th Annual Congress and Expo on Biofuels and Bioenergy – Theme: Biofuels and Bioenergy for Future, April 16-17, 2018 Dubai, UAE

N. Rettenmaier, H. Keller, G.A. Reinhardt: Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of furniture and bioenergy production from oil palm trunks. GCB Bioenergy (2014) 6, 509 – 520

N. Rettenmaier, H. Keller, G.A. Reinhardt: How to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using co-products arising from palm oil production. Proceedings of the “8th annual World Biofuels Markets Congress and Exhibition”, Rotterdam, the Netherlands, 12 – 14 March 2013

N. Rettenmaier, H. Keller, G. Reinhardt, J. Münch: Greenhouse gas emission savings associated with selected optimization strategies along the palm oil chain. Case study CAROTECH: Innovative co-production of palm oil biodiesel and phytonutrients. Heidelberg, 2012

N. Rettenmaier, H. Keller, G. Reinhardt, J. Münch: Greenhouse gas emission savings associated with selected optimisation strategies along the palm oil chain. Case study CAROTINO: Innovative co-production of palm oil biodiesel and nutraceuticals. Heidelberg, 2011

N. Rettenmaier, H. Keller, G. Reinhardt, J. Münch: Greenhouse gas emission savings associated with selected optimisation strategies along the palm oil chain. Case study Palm Wood Technology: Furniture-grade wood products from oil palm trunks. Heidelberg, 2011

N. Rettenmaier: LCA of biodiesel from Jatropha, oil palm and soybean. EUROCLIMA Workshop on the agro-environmental impact of biofuels and bioenergy (organised by JRC, UNICAMP & CTBE), Campinas, Brazil, 30 November – 1 December 2011

G. Reinhardt: Recent developments of biofuels’ LCA in Europe: The case of palm oil biofuels. Life cycle management conference, LCM 2011, Berlin, Germany, 28 – 31 August 2011

G. Reinhardt: How does palm oil measure up against EU’s Renewable Energy Directive (RED)? International Palm Oil Sustainability Conference 2010, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia,
23 – 25 May 2010

G.A. Reinhardt, S. Köppen, N. Rettenmaier, S.O. Gärtner: How to enhance the sustainability of palm oil biodiesel. 2nd International Congress on Biodiesel: The Science and The Technologies, Proceedings CD, Munich, 15 – 17 November 2009.

N. Rettenmaier, G. Reinhardt, R. Essel: Life Cycle Analysis of Biodiesel from Alternative Plant Oils: Palm Oil and Jatropha Oil. In: Fuels 2009 – Mineral Oil Based and Alternative Fuels, 7th International Colloquium, 14 – 15 Jan 2009, Proceedings, Technische Akademie Esslingen, p 677 – 684, W.J. Bartz (Editor)

J. Münch, G.A. Reinhardt, N. Rettenmaier: Ökologische Optimierungspotenziale der energetischen Nutzung von Palmöl (Environmental Assessment of Palm Oil Use for Energy). In: Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung – Zeitschrift für Umweltchemie und Ökotoxikologie, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg (D), Mai 2008

N. Rettenmaier, G. Reinhardt, J. Münch, S. Gärtner: Grundlagen für die Bilanzierung Nachwachsender Rohstoffe – Beispiel Palmöl (Basics for the Balancing of Renewable Resources – Example Palmoil). Netzwerk Lebenszyklusdaten (AK Nachwachsende Rohstoffe), Karlsruhe, 2007

A. Pastowski (Projektleitung, Wuppertal Institut) and 12 further authors (from IFEU: G. Reinhardt, S. Gärtner, J. Münch, N. Rettenmaier): Sozial-ökologische Bewertung der stationären energetischen Nutzung von importierten Biokraftstoffen am Beispiel von Palmöl. (Environmental and Socio-Economic Assessment of Stationary Energetic Use of Imported Biofuels: The Case of Palm Oil). In cooperation with Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie (D) (Coordinator), Wilhelm Merton Zentrum für Europäische Integration und internationale Wirtschaftsförderung, J.W. Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (D), Koordination der juristischen Bearbeitungsstelle Forschungsstelle Umweltenergierechte e.V., Universität Würzbürg (D), commissioned by German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, 2007

N. Rettenmaier: Life-Cycle Assessment of Palm Oil Biodiesel. (Ökobilanz von Palmöl-Biodiesel). Proceedings of „International Congress on Biodiesel: The Science and The Technologies“, 5 – 7 November 2007 in Vienna (A)

G.A. Reinhardt, N. Rettenmaier: How Palm Oil for Energy becomes Sustainable. Proceedings of the 15th European Biomass Conference & Exhibition, 07 – 11 May 2007 in Berlin, (D)

G.A. Reinhardt, N. Rettenmaier, S. Gärtner: Ch. 2: Palm oil as a source of bioenergy. Ch. 4: Environmental Effects of Palm Oil Production. In: WWF Deutschland (ed.): Rain Forest for Biodiesel? Ecological Effects of using Palm Oil as a Source of Energy, (Regenwald für Biodiesel? Ökologische Auswirkungen der energetischen Nutzung von Palmöl), Frankfurt 2007

G.A. Reinhardt: Ecological valuation of palmoil. Proceedings of the International Energy Farming Congress, 13 – 15 March 2007, Papenburg (D)

N. Rettenmaier: Palmöl-Biodiesel: Ökologische Chancen und Risiken. (Palmoil-Biodiesel: Ecological Chances and Risks). VDI-GVC Fachausschusssitzung Biokraftstoffe, 26 – 27 February 2007, Würzburg

Helms, G.A. Reinhardt, N. Rettenmaier: Bioenergie aus Palmöl: Ökologische Chancen und Risiken (Bioenergy from Palm Oil: Environmental Chances and Risks). In: Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen – Zeitschrift für Energiewirtschaft, Recht, Technik und Umwelt, 56. Jg. (2006), Heft 11, pp. 70-73, ETV Verlag, Essen (D)

S.O. Gärtner, H. Helms, G.A. Reinhardt, N. Rettenmaier: An Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gases of NExBTL. Commissioned by Neste Oil Corporation, Porvoo (FI), 2006


Dr. Guido Reinhardt

PhD; Mathematician, Chemist, Biologist
Phone: +49 (0)6221 4767 31

Nils Rettenmaier

Dipl. Geoökologe (graduate in geoecology)
Phone: +49 (0)6221 4767 24