Efficient resource consumption in general, and material efficiency in particular, are key strategies for the overall reduction of resource consumption in a country. The efficiency approach attempts to achieve the same effect with reduced material input, or superior outcomes with the same quantity of material. Efficiency measures in this context may be analysed and implemented at different levels. Germany was among the first countries to address the central theme of natural resource conservation with the adoption of the German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess), thus placing action strategies in a policy context. ProgRess I and II describe approaches and measures for the optimisation of resource efficiency along the entire value chain. These recommendations include optimised supply of materials and products as well as efficient use by the consumer. The establishment of preferably closed recycling loops at the end-of-life stage is another key challenge of the resource efficiency strategy. ifeu participates in a number of projects exploring the development of policy strategies in both national and international contexts. Additional key areas of research include the analysis of efficiency potentials of materials by means of material flow analyses and Life Cycle Assessments.