Pathways to a resource-efficient and greenhouse-gas-neutral Germany 1
Sustainable Development and Resource Productivity
Global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to rise despite the implementation of climate protection measures. Global materials extraction is accelerating and contributes significantly to GHG-emissions and other environmental pressures. Raw materials such as metals, biomass, and non-metallic minerals are central in meeting the climate targets by 2050. This study investigates possible transformation pathways towards a GHG-neutral and resource-efficient Germany by 2050 using six scenarios. In all scenarios, a transformation towards 100% renewable energy (electricity, fuels, and feedstocks) takes place until 2050. By 2050, GHG-reductions of 95% to 97% is achieved compared to 1990. Raw materials consumption can be reduced by 56% to 70% compared to 2010. However, the demand for a range of metals central to the transformation will also increase. The results show that ambitious efforts and cross-sectoral cooperation at both national and international level are required to mitigate climate change and lower raw materials demands.