Economic indicators

Biotic and abiotic raw materials are our base of life. However, quantities and composition of required raw materials strongly differ between individual countries. A number of indicators including material consumption, material input or raw material productivity have been established to measure the raw material use of individual economies. The wider context of this matter includes questions of domestic raw material use in contrast with raw material consumption abroad, and associated local and overall environmental impacts. ifeu collects robust, internationally comparable data on country-specific raw material indicators and develops comparative measurement approaches for statistical authorities. Furthermore, we provide consulting for authorities and ministries to guide goal definition, and we model scenarios for the future raw material consumption of individual countries.



Current demand and reduction potentials of base metals in Germany and the EU

The study describes the current and future demand for base metals in Germany and the EU and identi-fies reduction potential based on selected sectors and product examples.

Accompanying research for the National Circular Economy Strategy

Scientific support and monitoring of the National Circular Economy Strategy (Nationale Kreislaufwirtschaftsstrategie, NKWS)

The aim is to support the development of the NKWS. The ifeu is responsible for the fields of action of buildings and building materials as well as biotic raw materials and the updating of material…

Mehrstöckiges Lagerregal in einem Recyclingzentrum mit Reihen von ausgebauten Autotüren und -fenster.


AutoRess examines technical and non-technical options across all vehicle lifecycle phases to reduce the impact of traffic on climate protection and resource consumption.

[Translate to English:] Förderband zur Beförderung von Eisenerz.

Critical raw materials (CRM) analysis for the EU27

The European Commission maintains a list of critical raw materials (CRM) that are of great economic importance to the EU27 and have a high supply risk. Ifeu supports the Commission in updating the…

Material footprints of EU countries

In the project Raw Material Footprint of EU Countries, we calculate the raw material consumption of the countries of the EU and other European countries annually using a uniform methodology. In…

The Limits to Consumption

Sustainable consumption within planetary boundaries, considering global demand dynamics

In this project we identify sustainable consumption patterns in a future, greenhouse gas-neutral world within the planetary boundaries. We contrast these sustainable consumption patterns with current…

Sekundärrohstoffeinsatz in Deutschland

Der verstärkte Einsatz von Sekundärrohstoffen ist eine wichtige Strategie, um Umweltbelastungen durch die Nutzung von Rohstoffen zu mindern. In diesem Projekt wird der Frage nachgegangen, welche…

RME Eurostat IV

RMC (Raw Material Consumption) is a key indicator to measure progress with regard to resource efficien-cy. It includes domestic extraction and imports minus exports measured in raw material…

REFINE Analysis of raw material demand and environmental impacts of the energy transition in a resource efficient and greenhouse gas neutral Germany

What is the raw material demand, and what are the environmental impacts linked to the energy sys-tem transition in Germany, considering the whole value chain within Germany and outside? What is the…

MoniRess II

Based on the results of MoniRess (inventory, monitoring and analysis of the international developments in the policy area of conserving natural resources), in MoniRess II the monitoring system is…

DeuRess II - Resource Report for Germany 2022

In the DeuRess II project, we are preparing the third resource report for Germany on behalf of the Federal Environment Agency.

Betrachtung der Erde

Concept study planetary boundaries

The project investigates the extent to which environmental impacts from the use of abiotic raw materials can be linked to the concept of planetary boundaries, and whether target values for resource…

MSA Hafnium Helium

Development of a Raw Material System Analysis Study for Hafnium and Helium for the EU

Material System Analysis (MSA) investigate the flows of materials through the economy. In this project, MSAs for Hafnium and Helium through the EU economy were created.

Supply of statistical services in the field of environmental-economic accounts: RME Model

RMC (Raw Material Consumption) is a key indicator to measure progress with regard to resource efficiency. It includes domestic extraction and imports minus exports measured in raw material…

Ein Erzkai


Global material flows and demand-supply forecasting for mineral strategies

Demand for minerals and metals is growing. Global supply chains are becoming increasingly complex encompassing extraction, international trade, different processing steps, use in different products as…

Germany’s global environmental impact of production, consumption and imports, Part II: Case studies and in-depth analyses

Germany, Europe’s leading export economy, is a key player in global raw material and commodity flows. The related impact on the environment outside of Germany has so far received little attention and…


Survey, monitoring and analysis of international developments regarding natural resource efficiency policy

The promotion of resource efficiency at the country level is a rational in order to react to resource scarcities and to increase a country’s economic competitiveness. The project MoniRess collects and…


Recognizing and evaluating the GHG reduction potential of resource efficiency policy

The project KliRess meets the challenge to depict interlinkages and feedbacks between climate and resource efficiency policy. With systemic modeling the complexity of feedbacks is systematically…

Transformation to a Greenhouse Gas Neutral and Resource Efficient Country

The project RTD analyzes transformation pathways towards a greenhouse gas neutral Germany in 2050 (95 % reduction compared to 1990) calculating different scenarios and resulting total emissions and…

DeteRess – Structural and Technical Determinants of Resource Efficiency

DeteRess tackles the specific knowledge gap about which saving potentials for raw materials can be reached exclusively through technical or structural measures and is supposed to shed light on the…