100 % heat from renewable energy?

In the energy concept, the Federal government has formulated the goal of drastically reducing the heat energy demand of buildings and of meeting the remaining energy demand predominantly with renewable energy resources. In this way the existing buildings in Germany should be practically climate-neutral by 2050. Current long-term energy scenarios for Germany up to 2050 differ fundamentally, however, with respect to the strategies by means of which this is to be achieved. In addition, the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of the existing buildings often run up against constructional, technical and economic barriers. The question therefore arises as to what techniques and concepts can be used to ensure an inexpensive supply of regenerative heat.

Germany has the target to achieve an almost climate neutral building stock by the year 2050. Based on 400 renovated ambitious efficiency houses from the DENA database, an analysis of architectural, supply technical, environmental, legal, economic, urban development and acceptance aspects of rehabilitation of buildings to high standards and high shares of RES heat is carried out. A survey of all users and owners, an evaluation of the practical experiences, a survey of 10,000 funding recipients of the market incentive program and a modeling of selected buildings in an in-depth analysis by means of a life cycle assessment and a home simulation model form the empirical core of the study

Based on this and on the basis of an analysis of the potential of renewable heat, development scenarios of the building sector are modeled. Finally, selected policy instruments are designed and developed.


March 2012 – December 2014


Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi)


Dena – German Energy Agency, Building Department

Ecofys Germany GmbH

Bergische Universität, Fachgebiet Bauphysik und Technische Gebäudeausrüstung, Fachbereich D Architektur

Bergische Universität, Fachgebiet Ökonomie des Planens und Bauens, Fachbereich D Architektur

Stefan Klinski, Berlin School of Economics and Law

Technische Universität Darmstadt, Fachgebiet Entwerfen und Energieeffizientes Bauen